Банкиры попросили Путина запретить доллар

Глава ВТБ Андрей Костин подготовил предложения по переходу на расчеты в рублях

Банкиры попросили Путина запретить доллар
фото: kremlin.ru

Вопрос дедолларизации поднимается не впервые. В августе прошлого года о тренде на избавление экономики от «зеленого» президенту сообщил министр экономического развития Максим Орешкин. В частности, глава ведомства отметил работу ЦБ, который сокращает выдачу кредитов в валюте.

Отказаться от доллара призывают и российские банкиры. По словам главы ВТБ Андрея Костина, для этого необходимо перевести международные расчеты в рубли. Как отметил Костин, с начала 2018 года у россиян «стал меньше сдвиг в сторону долларовых депозитов и кредитов относительно рублевых». «Нам кажется, это важный элемент дальнейшей дедолларизации финансовой сферы нашей страны», — заявил Костин.

По его словам, сейчас необходимо создавать собственные финансовые инструменты, развивать рынок по размещению еврооблигаций и акций. Таким образом российский рынок будет защищен от воздействия внешних факторов. Поэтому Костин попросил президента поручить правительству и ЦБ рассмотреть подготовленные предложения банка. При этом глава ВТБ рассчитывает на поддержку Путина в дедолларизации.

К слову, в июне президент в ходе прямой линии заявил, что многие страны уже подумывают о том, чтобы использовать в международных расчетах вместо доллара другие валюты. Однако глава государства признал, что сейчас доллар США — единственная универсальная валюта в мире.

Такого же мнения придерживаются и эксперты, опрошенные «МК». Как отмечает аналитик АЛОР БРОКЕР Алексей Антонов, на внутреннем рынке правительство вполне под силу избавиться от «зеленого». «Могут пойти по простому пути запрета или частичного запрета операций с валютой для физлиц и компаний», — говорит эксперт.

Однако, с точки зрения международных расчетов непонятно, какие аргументы будет использовать наше правительство для того, чтобы убедить контрагентов платить им в рублях. «Для того, чтобы рубль был свободно конвертируемой валютой, необходимо, чтобы за рубли продавались высоко востребованные товары и услуги, которые нельзя купить нигде, кроме как в России. Но на сегодняшний день таких уникальных товаров у нас в экспорте нет. И даже, если они и присутствуют, то в микроскопических долях к остальному экспорту. Поэтому нашим контрагентам нет смысла запасать рубли для торговли», — считает Антонов.

Кроме того, нефть — главная статья российского экспорта — во всем мире котируется в долларах и продается за доллары. Исключением стали лишь недавно появившихся контракты в китайских юанях, которые пока не столь популярны. Здесь действует простой принцип: если бы рубль был удобным средством расчета, то им бы уже пользовались. А если не пользуются — значит, он неудобен — в частности, по причине неоднократных девальваций. «Представьте, что вы — иностранная фирма, которая ведет внешнюю торговлю с Россией. Вы накопили рубли для покупки товара или оплаты услуг, и тут наступает 1998-й год, или 2008-й, или 2014-й. В результате все ваши рублевые резервы сокращаются минимум вдвое. Валюта развивающейся страны не может стать международным средством платежа именно по причине неустойчивости курса. Доллар же напротив демонстрирует абсолютную конвертируемость и растущий курс», — утверждает Антонов.

Источник: ria-news.ru

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