Дрозды раскрыли зоологам главный парадокс городской жизни

Дрозды раскрыли зоологам главный парадокс городской жизни

Эти птицы живут дольше в городе, хотя лес полезнее для их здоровья

Дрозды раскрыли зоологам главный парадокс городской жизни
фото: pixabay.com

Специалисты на протяжении долгого времени следили за черными дроздами, живущими в городах и на расстоянии более 30 километров от них. У некоторых особей были взяты образцы клеток для изучения. Как выяснилось, у последних при одинаковом возрасте были длиннее концевые участки хромосом под названием телоомеры. Считается, что именно по длине теломер можно наиболее точно определить «биологический возраст» живого существа, и многие учёные считают манипуляции с теломерами наиболее перспективным способом принципиально увеличивать продолжительность жизни.

По словам специалистов, наблюдалось ускоренное старение и по внешним признакам — у городских птиц быстрее появлялся окрас, характерный для немолодых особей. Тем не менее, среди них был выше процент объективно старых с точки зрения реального возраста. По всей видимости, это означает, что в городе шанс дрозда стать «долгожителем» выше.

Давно известно, что животные в неволе живут значительно дольше, чем в дикой природе, однако это, чаще всего, объясняется отсутствием угрозы голода или нападения хищников, а также уходом со стороны людей. Разница между жизнью в лесу и в саду на территории города в этом отношении представляет собой значительно меньший «контраст». Тем не менее, по мнению исследователей, полученные результаты свидетельствуют о том, что «преимущества» жизни в городе перевешивают «недостатки». Тем не менее, для более глубокого понимания выявленного феномена потребуются дополнительные исследования, предполагают авторы. Специалисты даже не исключают, что не городские условия «уменьшаю» теломеры птиц, а дрозды с короткими теломерами чаще переселяются в города и оставляют там потомство.

Научная работа была опубликована в научном журнале Biology Letters.

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Источник: mk.ru

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