На Землю из космоса можно будет взглянуть при помощи смартфона

На Землю из космоса можно будет взглянуть при помощи смартфона

В Роскосмосе рассказали, как развивают услуги по предоставлению снимков дистанционного зондирования Земли

 

Заместитель директора Департамента навигационных космических систем (ГЛОНАСС) Госкорпорации «Роскосмос» Валерий ЗАИЧКО рассказал «МК» о развитии российской группировки ДЗЗ.

— Валерий Александрович, расскажите о действующей сегодня на орбите отечественной группировке спутников ДЗЗ.

— Космическая система дистанционного зондирования Земли развивается у нас на основании Федеральной космической программы, где предусмотрены развитие орбитальной группировки и наземной инфраструктуры для приема и обработки данных, получаемых с космических аппаратов ДЗЗ. Сейчас на орбите восемь космических аппаратов (КА) ДЗЗ, из них пять — высокого детального наблюдения с разрешением лучше 1 метра (3 КА типа «Ресурс-П») и с разрешением 2-2,5 м (2 КА типа «Канопус»), и три КА гидрометеорологического назначения. Спутник «Электро-Л» каждые 30  минут передает информацию всей территории России для решения гидрометеорологических задач в интересах Росгидромета.  У КА гидрометеорологического назначения «Метеор» пять видов целевой аппаратуры, информация с которой также используется в интересах Росгидромета, в том числе для формирования прогнозов погоды. В настоящее время КА «Канопус-В ИК», имеющий на борту целевую аппаратуру инфракрасного наблюдения, которая позволяет осуществлять мониторинг лесных пожаров, завершает этап летных испытаний. А получаемая с него информация уже используется в интересах МЧС России и Росгидромета.

— Сколько вообще спутников ДЗЗ, включая КА иностранных производителей, находятся сегодня на орбите нашей планеты?

— Всего на орбите более 150 аппаратов дистанционного зондирования Земли. Наибольшие группировки есть у США, Европейского космического агентства, Китая и Индии.

-Теперь о потребителях снимков ДЗЗ. Назовите, кто чаще всего обращается к вам за помощью?

— Сегодня это почти все федеральные и региональные органы исполнительной власти, другие потребители, в том числе коммерческие. Основные потребители данных ДЗЗ, получаемых с отечественных космических аппаратов — Росреестр (для создания и обновления картографической продукции, в том числе навигационных карт), МЧС России (для проведения космического мониторинга районов чрезвычайных ситуаций), Росгидромет (для составления прогнозов погоды, формирования карт облачности, экологического мониторинга и решения других гидрометеорологических задач с использованием материалов космической съемки).

-Снимки заказывают время от времени или они поступают в указанные ведомства постоянно?

— Федеральные органы исполнительной власти и субъекты РФ в начале года подают заявку на космическую съемку в соответствии с их потребностями. На этом основании Роскосмос формирует План космической съемки на очередной год, в котором указываются районы съемок, их площадь, характеристики съемки и приоритетность ее проведения. Полученные данные передаются потребителям по мере их получения. Но есть заказчики, которым нужны оперативные (получаемые, практически в реальном времени) данные, для выявления мест паводков, наводнений, внезапно возникших пожаров и других природных и техногенных катастроф, например. Поэтому они подают срочные заявки, которые могут быть выполнены в течение ближайших суток. Такие заявки принимаются круглосуточно, прежде всего от МЧС России.

— Вспомните случаи, когда снимки ДЗЗ принесли реальную пользу.

-В прошлом году в Иркутской области была серия лесных пожаров. Мы отправляли снимки каждый день не только в МЧС России, но и всем субъектам Российской Федерации, где возникали лесные пожары. При этом у основного заказчика возникала возможность получать информацию с использованием космических снимков о том, где сегодня находится огонь, куда надо было бы перебросить дополнительную технику. Для регионов также важна информация о том, какая площадь лесов сгорела, чтобы оценить масштабы бедствия. При этом материалы космической съемки позволяют с высокой точностью определять площадь, охваченную лесными пожарами.

— А причины возгорания вы определять можете?

— Это достаточно сложная задача, поскольку заявка на космическую съемку, как правило приходит уже после возникновения пожара. Но сегодня известно, что в основном это происходит в условиях засухи, в результате гроз или небрежности людей — выяснение причин не входят в компетенцию Роскосмоса.

— Весной будете снимать паводок?

— Да, наводнения — это еще один объект нашего пристального внимания. И МЧС России заранее нас информирует о предполагаемых районах подтоплений и заторов на основных крупных водных артериях страны. Мы оперативно передаем в МЧС материалы космической съемки, используя аппаратно-программные и технические средства из состава Единой территориально-распределенной системы ДЗЗ Роскосмоса, чтобы спасатели смогли вовремя принять необходимые решения.

— Вы сказали, что уже сейчас знаете, где появятся заторы. Это видно по каким-то признакам?

— Как правило, паводки происходят в одних и тех же местах на Лене, на Енисее, на Амуре и других реках. МЧС знает эти места по итогам прошлых лет и заранее информирует нас о проведении космических съемок этих районов.

— С заказчиками из ведомств понятно, а заказывают ли вам снимки местности частные лица?

— К нам стали довольно часто обращаться обычные граждане с просьбой провести съемки их домов, дачных участков. Причем их интересует не только состояние сооружений в текущий момент времени, — многим нужны снимки в определенном хронологическом периоде, начиная, к примеру, с 2005 по 2017 годы. Такая информация, полученная по космическим снимкам, может использоваться, в том числе для решения судебных споров, связанных с правами собственности, определением границ участков. Таким образом мы помогаем определить четкую границу участка, где стоял забор несколько лет назад, и доказать, что теперь он перенесен на какое-то расстояние в ту или иную сторону. Кроме этого, обращаются частные лица и за снимками ДЗЗ для их использования при решении вопросов о наследовании недвижимого имущества (участки, дома, дачи). Космические снимки помогают и при разрешении этих вопросов.

— С какого года у вас хранятся данные ДЗЗ из космоса?

— В настоящее время у нас накоплен значительный архив космических снимков с 1986, полученных в различных диапазонах спектра с разной целевой аппаратуры.

— Теперь вопрос о научном использовании спутников. Недавно в Китае запустили спутник, который будет измерять электромагнитное излучение. У нас в России есть аппараты, выполняющие задачи по заказу ученых?

— У нас практически все спутники работают в том числе и на науку. На ряде космических аппаратов ДЗЗ размещена научная аппаратура, информация с которой передается Российской академии наук и в Институт космических исследований РАН. Метеорологические спутники исследуют атмосферу, влажность и передают метеорологам данные о солености почвы и морской воды, о цветении водных растений и другую информацию. В частности, одним из объектов научных исследований являются данные ДЗЗ из космоса для изучения экологии озера Байкал, космические снимки которого Роскосмосом передаются научным организациям и академическим институтам.

— Что еще интересного можно разглядеть из космоса?

— Минувшим летом в Антарктиде откололся кусок от ледника Ларсена С — самого большого из шельфовых ледников. Мы наблюдали движение образовавшегося айсберга. Также в прошлом году, в сентябре, над странами Латинской Америки проходили ураганы Мария и другие, информация о движении которых были зафиксированы российскими космическими аппаратами.

— Какие новые спутники ДЗЗ планируете отправлять в космос в ближайшее время?

— В планах — поддерживать существующую орбитальную группировку КА ДЗЗ и наращивать количество аппаратов. При этом, к 2021-2022 гг. мы планируем иметь на орбите порядка 15-20 космических аппаратов ДЗЗ, в том числе 2-3 КА радиолокационного наблюдения (КА «Кондор-ФКА» и КА «Обзор-Р»).

В заключение хотелось бы отметить, что в соответствии с поручениями Президента и Правительства Роскосмос реализует проект «Цифровая Земля», который предусматривает создание уже в 2018 году сплошного мозаичного покрытия данными ДЗЗ высокого пространственного разрешения с российских космических аппаратов, всей территории нашей страны. Доступ к нему получит любой желающий в любой момент времени. А чтобы можно было любоваться красотой нашей планеты из космоса, или уточнять местонахождение своего дома, находясь вдали от домашнего компьютера Роскосмос уже разрабатывает мобильное приложение, позволяющее не только просматривать космические изображения на мобильных устройствах, но и приобретать космические снимки из архива и заказывать новую съемку интересующего участка Земли.

Читайте наши новости первыми — добавьте «МК» в любимые источники.

Источник: mk.ru

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Greetings! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could find a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having difficulty finding one? Thanks a lot!

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