Палеонтологи разобрались, чем обернулось для людей катастрофическое извержение древнего супервулкана

Палеонтологи разобрались, чем обернулось для людей катастрофическое извержение древнего супервулкана

Человечество оказалось в значительно меньшей опасности, чем принято считать

Палеонтологи разобрались, чем обернулось для людей катастрофическое извержение древнего супервулкана
фото: pixabay.com

Согласно всё чаще подвергаемой сомнениям, но до сих пор популярной версии, извержение супервулкана Тоба привело к наступлению «вулканической зимы» на планете — пыль заслонила небо, в результате чего сначала растениям перестало хватать света, а затем животным — пищи. Согласно этой версии, люди могли пострадать как непосредственно от извержения, так и от его косвенных последствий, так что их количество сократилось на порядок, примерно до десяти тысяч человек.

В ходе нового исследования специалисты проанализировали следы вулканического пепла, который, судя по характерным соединениям калия и кремния, появились на поверхности Земли во время суперизвержения Тоба. После этого учёные сравнили останки и орудия труда, существовавшие до и после извержения, и пришли к выводу, что на быт древних людей, живших в Африке, а также на их количество супервулкан принципиальным образом не повлиял.

Научная работа была опубликована в журнале Nature.

Недавно против версии, что извержение супервулкана Тоба едва не погубило человечество, выступила и другая группа исследователей. Специалисты, представляющие Аризонский университет, сопоставили останки растений, произраставших за век до и два века спустя после извержения, и не обнаружили между ними принципиальных различий. По всей вероятности, это означает, что извержение не привело к наступлению «вулканической зимы».

Так или иначе, даже если до сих пор человечество не оказывалось под угрозой уничтожения из-за супервулканов, некоторые исследователи не исключают, что подобное может случиться в будущем. Более того, такой сценарий специалисты, представляющие американское аэрокосмическое агентство NASA, считают наиболее вероятным, чем падение гигантского астероида, начало Третьей мировой войны и другие потенциальные катастрофы глобального масштаба.

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Источник: mk.ru

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