The most important waterway is the Main River, which is navigable as far as Bamberg.The Danube carries vessels as far upstream as Kelheim. Major airports are located near Munich and Nürnberg.Bavaria’s share of the Alps consists of wooded peaks of several thousand feet, behind which rise steep ridges and high plateaus (in the west, the Allgäuer Alps; in the east, the Alps of Berchtesgaden).
Bavaria is a country of high plateaus and medium-sized mountains.
In the north are basalt knolls and high plateaus; in the northwest are the wooded sandstone hills of the Spessart.
The northwest is drained by the Main River, which flows into the Rhine.
To the southeast the topography varies from the stratified land formations of Swabia-Franconia to shell limestone and red marl, the hill country of the Franconian-Rednitz Basin, and the limestone mountains of the Franconian Jura along the Danube, which divides Bavaria north and south.
Great changes took place in the religious composition of the population after the war, with a heavy influx of Protestants.