Ceaser argues that the Romantic strain of European thought and literature, hostile to the Enlightenment view of reason and obsessed with history and national character, disdained the rationalistic American project.
The German poet Nikolaus Lenau commented: "With the expression Bodenlosigkeit (absence of ground), I think I am able to indicate the general character of all American institutions; what we call Fatherland is here only a property insurance scheme".
by the BBC World Service of 19 countries, 4 countries rated U. influence positively, while 14 leaned negatively, and 1 was divided.
Interpretations of anti-Americanism have often been polarized.
Anti-Americanism has been described by Hungarian-born American sociologist Paul Hollander as "a relentless critical impulse toward American social, economic, and political institutions, traditions, and values". moral failure, as opposed to what may be unavoidable failures of a complicated foreign policy that comes with superpower status.