Radioactive isotope used for age dating


They are applied by geologists in the same sense that a "null hypothesis" is in statistics -- not necessarily correct, just testable.

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This orientation is not an assumption, because in virtually all situations, it is also possible to determine the original "way up" in the stratigraphic succession from "way up indicators".

For example, wave ripples have their pointed crests on the "up" side, and more rounded troughs on the "down" side.

There are situations where it potentially fails -- for example, in cave deposits.

In this situation, the cave contents are younger than both the bedrock below the cave and the suspended roof above.

Most of these principles were formally proposed by Nicolaus Steno (Niels Steensen, Danish), in 1669, although some have an even older heritage that extends as far back as the authors of the Bible.