Adaptions were found for resisting UV radiation (e.g.
in the Kalahari, and for bitter tastes providing better capacity to tell poisonous plants.
A consistent and powerful hypothesis about human emergence is that the complementary reproductive strategies of females and males led to evolutionary gender paradox in early human societies and hence cultural complexity based on sexual relationships driven to a considerable extent by female reproductive choice.
The males, to achieve reproductive success needed to compromise their competition to fit with the cooperative nature of the human group, centered on the family and gathering and social relationships with the females.
Unlike the inbred genetic profile of the Altai Neanderthals (Prüfer et al doi:10.1038/nature12886) and those from Vindija Cave in Croatia (Prüfer et al doi:10.1126/science.aao1887), genetic sequencing of ancient individuals the Sungir group of upper paleolithic remains (Sikora et al.
doi:10.1126/science.aao1807) dating from around 34,000 years ago, shows they lived in groups with few close relatives, thus limiting inbreeding.
Non-African populations, appeared shortly after 100,000 years ago.